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oriental powderpost beetle 397, 398; Blattaria 36, 39, 44, pigeon flea (Ceratophyllus columbae) poultry bug (Haematosiphon inodorus)
(Lyctoxylon japonum) 111 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58; 376 206
oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) Coleoptera 103; Diptera 158; pigeon louse (Columbicola columbae) poultry-house moth (Niditinea
378 Hymenoptera 231, 233, 266; 363 fuscipunctella) 341
oriental wood borer Phasmatodea 357; Psocoptera pigeon tick (Argas reflexus) 402 powderpost termites (Cryptotermes
(Heterobostrychus aequalis) 73 366 pigeon tremex (Tremex columba) spp.)
ornamental trees, plants: pathogenic fungi 21 267 prairie yellowjacket (Vespula
arthropods 425; Diptera: 86, pathogenic organisms: Blattaria 36, pillbug, common (Armadillium atripilosa) 282
119; Lepidoptera 329, 331, 333, 37, 53 vulgare) 427 predaceous stink bug (Perillus
334, 335, 343 pavement ant (Tetramorium pillbugs (Isopoda) 389, 426 bioculatus) 211
ornate cabinet beetle (Trogoderma caespitum) 260; food 260; nests pillbugs (Sphaeroma spp.) 427 predatory mites (Blattisocius spp.)
ornatum) 104 260 pinching beetle (Pseudolucanus 397
Oroya fever (bartonellosis) 182 pavement ants (Tetramorium spp.) capreolus) 110 presenile dermatozoenwahn 18
oval guinea pig louse (Gyropus 260; food 260; morphology pine buprestid (Chalcophora japonica) prickly stick insect (Acanthoxyla
ovalis) 360 260; Guinea ant 260; 78 prasina) 356
overwintering: arthropods 424; pavement ant 260 pine carpenterworm (Givira lotta) propoxur 23
Coleoptera 86, 88, 92, 93, 95; pear slug (Caliora cerasi) 269 330 pseudoscorpions
Hemiptera 202, 208, 210, 211, pegbug (Odontotaenius disjunctus) 115 pine weevils, pine borers (Sipalinus (Pseudoscorpiones) 389, 428;
214, 215; Lepidoptera 328, Pennsylvania woods cockroach spp.) 94 habits 428; morphology 428
329, 331, 335 (Parcoblatta pensylvanica) 48“9: pine-stump prionus (Prionus psocids, booklice (Psocoptera)
oviparous: Blattaria 37 development 48; distribution pocularis) 85 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371;
ovoviviparous: Blattaria 37 49; habitats 48; habits 48; pinhole borer (Platypus flavicornis) development 366; habits 366;
ootheca 48 116 pest status 367; cereal psocid
Pacific black-legged tick (Ixodes pentachlorophenol 25 pinhole borers (Platypodidae) 116; 370; cosmopolitan grain
pacificus) 403 peridomestic habitats 3, 8; soil 3; distribution food 116; frass
; psocid 367; house psocid 367,
Pacific drain fly (Psychoda pacifica) blood-feeding 3; pests 8, 15 106; morphology 116; Asian 370; large-winged
182 periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) pinhole borer 116; horizontal psocid 367; larger pale
Paederus beetles (Paederus spp.) 217 pinhole borer 116; oak pinhole trogiid 371; reticulate-winged
123 permethrin 24 borer 116; pinhole borer 116; trogiid 371; stored food and
pagago thread-legged katydid Peruvian larder beetle (Dermestes see also Platypodidae in Family, grain psocids 370; striped
(Arethaea gracilipes) 356 peruvianus) 103; development genus, species index psocid 369; see also Psocoptera
painted hickory borer (Megacyllene 103; distribution 103; food pink bollworm (Pectinophora in Family, genus, species
caryae) 84 103 gossypiella) 330 index
468 Index


psyllids (Psyllidae) 212: food 218; redtailed flesh fly (Sarcophaga 163; screens 27
nymphs 208, 218; pest status cruentata) 183 dispersal 163; habitats 163 scuds (Amphipoda) 389, 405
218; blister-gall psyllid 219; red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus salt marsh punkie (Culicoides furens) sculptured pine borer (Chalcophora
hackberry nipple-gall psyllid valens) 122: development 122; 156 virginiensis) 78
219; hackberry twig gall maker distribution 122; food 122 saltmarsh greenhead (Tabanus sea gulls 10
219; see also Psyllidae in Family, red wasp (Vespa simillima) 276 nigrovittatus) 190 sea scud (Gammarus annulatus) 405
genus, species index relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) sand crickets (Stenopelmatidae) seaside earwig (Anisolabis maritime)
pubic louse (Phthirus pubis) 362 362 355 143
purple martin (Delichon urbica) 376 relapsing fever 401 sand flea (Tunga penetrans) 379 seaweed Diptera 186
puss caterpillar (Megalopyge relapsing fever tick (Ornithodoros sand flies (Psychodidae) 181 seaweed flies (Coelopidae) 159;
opercularis) 334 hermsi) 404 sand termite (Psammotermes biology 159; pest status 159;
putty-bugs (Sphaeroma spp.) 427 repellents 25 hybostoma) 310 seaweed fly 159
pyramid ant (Dorymyrmex insanus) reservoir habitats 15 sand wasps (Bembix spp.) 268 seaweed fly (Coelopa frigida) 159
246 reservoir populations 3, 4, 6, 15 sand-flea (Orchestia agilis) 405 seed-corn beetle (Stenolophus leconti)
pyrethrins 22 reticulate-winged trogiid (Lepinotus sand-fleas (Amphipoda) 405 79
pyrethroid insecticides 23 reticulates) 371 sandfly fever 182 seedling springtail (Bourletiella
pyrethrum 22 rhinoceros beetle (Xyloryctes sanitary sewer 9 hortensis) 142
pyriproxyfen 24 jamaicensis) 120 S˜o Paulo fever 401
a semiochemicals 26
rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica) 338: sapwood timberworm (Hylecoetus septic fringe 7, 17
Queensland pine beetle development 338; food 338; lugubris) 113 seventeen-year cicadas 217, 218
(Calymmaderus incisus) 67 morphology 338 sawflies (Tenthredinidae) 269 sevin 23
Queensland tick typhus 403 rice weevil (Sitophilus oryza) 94; sawtoothed grain beetle sewage springtail (Hypogastrura
Quiver-spiders (Pholcidae) 415 development 94; distribution (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) 90; purpurescens) 141
94; food 94 development 90; distribution sewer flies (Psychodidae) 182
rabbit tick (Haemaphysalis ring-ant termite (Neotermes insularis) 91; food 91 sewer fly (Clogmia albipunctatus) 182
leporipalustris) 402 305 scabies, itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) sewers, sewage treatment: Blattaria
raisin moth (Cadra figulilella) 338; ring-legged earwig (Euborellia 390, 394: development 395; 36, 51, 54, 55, 56; Diptera 158,
food 338 annulipes) 143 morphology 394 185, 186, 188
rattail maggots (Syrphidae) 188 river blindness (Onchocerciasis) scabies mites (Scarptidae) 390 shaft louse of chickens (Menopon
rattailed maggot (Eristalis tenax) 186 scale insects (Coccidae) 218: gallinae)
188 rocio encephalitis 160 development 218; food 218; shantytown 7, 17
red ant, red wood ant (Formica rufa) rock pigeon (Columba livia domestica) morphology 218; brown soft sharp-headed grain leafhopper
247 376 scale 218 (Draculacephala mollipes) 216
redback widow spider (Latrodectus rock squirrel (Spermophilus scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae) 118: sheeting, plastic 27, 28
hasseltii) 418 variegatus) 376 food 118; habits 119; history shepherd spiders (Opiliones) 428
redbug (Eutrombicula alfreddugesi) Rocky Mountain spotted fever 17, 118; cockchafer 119; eastern shiny powderpost beetle (Lyctus
399 389, 401 green June beetle 119; eastern cavicollis) 112
red carpenter ant (Camponotus Rocky Mountain tick (Dermacentor Hercules beetle 120; Goliath shiny spider beetle (Gibbium
chromaoides) 241 andersoni) 402 beetle 120; hoplia beetle 119; psylloides) 117
red chicken mite (Dermanyssus roost mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) Japanese beetle 119; June shore flies (Ephydridae) 171;
gallinae) 397 397 beetles 119; May beetles 118; biology 171; pest status 164;
red-eyed flesh fly (Sarcophaga rotenone 22 Maybug 119; rhinocerus beetle brine fly 171; cesspool
aldrichi) 183 rough sowbug (Porcellio scaber) 427 120; small June beetle 119; ephydrid 171; urine fly 171;
red flour beetle (Tribolium rove beetles (Staphylinidae) 123: ten-lined June beetle 119; see also Ephydridae in Family,
castaneum) 127; development food 123; morphology 123; western or southwestern genus, species index
127; food 128 hairy rove beetle 123; Paederus Hercules beetle 120 short tailed whip-scorpions
red ground beetle (Harpalus rufipes) beetles 123; pictured rove scavenger flies (Sepsidae) 185: (Schizomida) 389, 429; habits
79 beetle 123; see also food 185; development 185; 429; morphology 429
redheaded mouse spider (Missulena Staphylinidae in Family, black scavenger fly 185; short-bodied cellar spider
insignis) 392 genus, species index scavenger fly 185; see also (Spermatophora meridionalis) 415
red imported fire ant (Solenopsis running spider (Cheiracanthium Sepsidae in Family, genus, shot hole borer (Scolytus rugulosus)
invicta) 257: colony 257; nest inclusum) 410 species index 121
257 rustic borer (Xylotrechus colonus) scavenger fly (Scatopse notata) 184 Siamese grain beetle (Lophocateres
red-legged ham beetle, copra beetle 86 scavenger fly (Sepsis pectoralis) 185 pusillus) 129
(Necrobia rufipes) 87; rusty grain beetle (Cryptolestes scavenger fly, minute black silica gel 23
development 87; food 87 ferrugineus) 90: development (Coboldia fuscipes) 184 silicon dioxide hydrate 23
red-shouldered ham beetle (Necrobia 90; distribution 90; food 90 scleroderma wasps (Sclerodermus silky anobiid (Priobium sericeum) 70
ruficollis) 87 spp.) 232 silverfish (Thysanura) 329:
red-shouldered shothole borer saddleback caterpillar (Acharia scorpions (Scorpiones) 389, 429: development 383; mating 383;
(Xylobiops basilaris) 75: stimulea) 332 distribution 430; food 430; pest status 383; common
development 75; distribution salannin 22 mating 430; morphology 429; silverfish 383; firebrat 384;
76; food 75; frass 75 salmonfly (Pteronarcys californica) pest status 430; venom 430 four-lined silverfish 384; gray
red-spotted sap beetles 366 scotch spearmint 25 silverfish 384
(Glischrochilus quadristignatus, salt marsh mosquito (Aedes Scottish biting midge (Culicoides silver-leaf whitefly (Bemisia
G. hortensis) 114 sollicitans) 163: development impunctatus) 156 argentifolii) 216
Index 469


Singapore ant (Monomorium 338; lesser wax moth 336; spider beetle 118; shiny spider spotted milkweed bug (Oncopeltus
destructor) 251 Mediterranean flour moth 336; beetle 117; see also Ptinidae in fasciatus) 208
sirex wasp (Sirex noctilio) 267 murky meal moth 336; sod Family, genus, species index spotted stink bug (Menida scotti)
skeletons: Coleoptera 102 webworms 338; stored-nut spider predator (Stenolemus lanipes) 211
slender-horned flour beetle moth 339; tobacco, cocoa 213 spotted sugar ant (Camponotus
(Gnathocerus maxillosus) 126 moth, warehouse moth 339; spider wasps (Pompilidae) 264 maculates) 243
slender Texas longhorn beetle wax moth 337; see also spider web Diptera 96 spotted-winged antlion (Dendroleon
(Psyrassa texana) 86 Pyralidae in Family, genus, spiders (Araneae) 389, 405, 406: obsoletus) 348
slug caterpillars (Limacodidae) 332 species index classification 406; springtails (Collembola) 139:
slug caterpillars, jelly grubs snow fleas (Hypogastrura nivicola, development 406; digestion development 139; jumping
(Limacodidae) 332; adult 332; Istoma saltans) 141 405; food 405; mating 406; 139; mating 139; pest status
caterpillar 332; distribution snowy tree cricket (Oecanthus fultoni) morphology 405; silk 406; 139; pest species 139;
332; Asian slug moth, 353 venom 405; aggressive house household springtail 140;
blue-striped nettle grub 332; soapberry bug (Jadera haematoloma) spider 407; banana spider 417; Lucerne flea 142; seedling
coffee jelly grub 333; green 215 black and yellow garden spider springtail 142; sewage
slug moth 333; hag moth 333; sod webworms (Crambus spp., 409; black house spider 411; springtail 141; snow fleas 141
nettle caterpillars 335; oriental Pediasia spp.) 338 brown recluse spider 412; square-necked grain beetle
moth 332; saddleback sodium vapor lamps 12 brown widow spider 418; (Cathartus quadricollis) 90
caterpillar 332; spiny oak-slug soldier beetles (Cantharidae) 79: canopy spider 412; cardinal square-nosed fungus beetle
332; stinging rose caterpillar morphology 79; goldenrod spider 409; Carolina wolf (Lathrididus minutus) 109
333; see also Limacodidae in soldier beetle 79 spider 413; ceiling-net spider squirrel flea (Orchopeas howardii)
Family, genus, species soldier flies (Stratiomyidae) 188: 412; domestic house spider 376
index biology 188; food 188; soldier 407; domestic spider 418; dust squirrels (Spermophilus) 362
small cabinet beetle (Anthrenus fly 180 spider 417; European yellow St. Andrews cross spider (Argiope
verbasci) 98 soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) 188 sac spider 410; false black keyserlingii) 409
small cypress jewel beetle (Diadoxus solid waste disposal 9 widow spider 420; false wolf St. Louis encephalitis 17, 160
erythrurus) 79 sound 27 spider 410; Florida red widow St. Mark™s fly (Bibio marci) 150
small dung flies (Sphaeroceridae) South African bont tick spider 418; funnel-web spider stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) 7, 176
185, 186, 187: food 185; pest (Amblyomma hebraeum) 402 407; garden wolf 413; giant stag beetles (Lucanidae) 109, 110:
status 186; small dung fly 186; South Asian cockroach (Polyphaga house spider 408; grass spider distribution 109; larvae 109;
see also Sphaeroceridae in saussurei) 58 407; hammock spider 412; American stag beetle 109;
Family, genus, species index southern black widow spider hobo spider 407; house spider British stag beetle 109
small dung fly (Leptocera caenosa) 186 (Latrodectus mactans) 418; 407; long-bodied cellar spider sticktight flea (Echnidnophaga
small earwig (Labia minor) 144 development 419; mating 419; 415; nook spider 410; northern gallinacea) 378
small hornet (Vespa analis) 276 natural habitats 419; prey 419; black widow spider 419; stinging: arthropods: 397, 398,
small June beetles (Serica spp.) 119 web 418 redback widow spider 418; 404, 430, 432; Hymenoptera
small powderpost beetle (Lyctus southern carpenter bee (Xylocopa redheaded mouse spider 392; 231, 232, 251, 262, 263;
discedens) 112 micans) 227 running spider 410; shepherd (Vespidae) 270, 271, 273, 274,
small winter stoneflies (Allocapnia southern cypress beetle (Phloeosinus spider 428; short-bodied cellar 275, 279, 281
pygmaea) 365 taxodii) 121 spider 415; southern black stinging rose caterpillar (Parasa
smaller yellow ant (Acanthomyops southern fire ant (Solenopsis xyloni) widow spider, button spider indetermina) 333
claviger) 235 258 418; southern house spider stingless bees (Apidae) 231
small-eyed flour beetle (Palorus southern house spider (Kukulcania 411; spitting spider 417; St. stingless bees (Apidae) 231; food
ratzeburgii) 126 hibernalis) 411 Andrews cross spider 409; 231; habits 231; see also Apidae
smoke flies (Platypezidae) 181; food southern mole cricket (Scapteriscus Sydney funnel-web spider 411; in Family, genus, species
181; eastern smoke fly 181; borellii) 353 triangle spider spider 420; index
western smoke fly 181 southern pine sawyer (Monochamus violin or fiddle-back spider stink beetle (Nomius pygmaeus) 80
smokybrown cockroach (Periplaneta titillator) 84; development 84; 412; wandering spider 410; stink bugs (Pentatomidae) 210;
fuliginosa) 55, 56: development distribution 84; food 84; frass wolf spider 413; yellow house food 210; habits 210; pest
55; distribution 55, 56; 85 spider 410; yellow sac spider status 210; African cluster bug
habitats 55; ootheca 55 southern powderpost beetle (Lyctus 410; zebra spider 417; see also 210; Asian stink bug 211; black
smooth stick insect (Clitarchus planicollis) 112 Araneae in Family, genus, and red stink bug 210; black
hookeri) 356 southern yellowjacket (Vespula species index paddy bug 211; brown
snakeworm (Sciara spp.) 185 squamosa) 283 spine-tailed earwig (Doru aculeatum) marmorated stink bug 211;
snipe flies (Rhagionidae) 183 Spanish fly (Lytta vulnerata) 113 144: development 144; marmorated stink bug 211;
snout moths, flour moths, wax sparrow flea (Ceratophyllus gallinae distribution 144; food 144 predaceous stink bug 211;
moths (Pyralidae) 334, 335, dilatus) 376 spinosyns 21 spotted stink bug 211; see also
336: caterpillars 335; food sphinx moths (Sphingidae) spiny-headed burrowing mayflies Pentatomidae in Family,
334; origins 335; pheromone spider beetles (Ptinidae) 116, 117: (Palingeniidae) 192 genus, species index
336; almond moth, tropical food 116; habitats 117; origins spiny oak-slug (Euclea delphinii) 332 stinking cockroach (Eurycotis
house moth 328; cocoa moth 117; American spider beetle spiny rat louse (Polyplax spinulosa) floridana) 36, 52: habitats 52;
339; dried fruit moth 340; 118; Australian spider beetle 362 mating 52; ootheca 52;
dried fruit moth, carob moth 118; brown spider beetle 118; spitting spiders (Scytodidae) 417 parthenogenesis 52
339; grass moth 338; greater globular spider beetle 118; spotted Mediterranean cockroach stone crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.)
wax moth 339; lawn moths golden spider beetle 118; hairy (Ectobius pallidus) 48 354
470 Index


stoneflies (Plecoptera) 365; mating Surinam cockroach (as Pycnoscelus 300; reproductives 293, 294; 339; food 339; morphology
365; morphology 365; pest indicus) 44 soldiers 292; subterranean 339
status 365; common stonefly Surinam cockroach (Pycnoscelus 297; swarming 293; workers tobacco moth, cocoa moth,
365; giant stonefly 366; surinamensis) 43, 44; 292 warehouse moth (Ephestia
salmonfly 366; small winter development 44; distribution tetramethrin 24 elutella) 339
stoneflies 365; winter stonefly 44; habitats 44; ootheca 44; Texas leaf-cutting ant (Atta texana) tobacco seed beetle, wardrobe
366 parthenogenesis 44 238; morphology 238; nest beetle (Attagenus fasiatus) 96,
stored food and grain swallow bugs (Oeciacus spp.) 206, 239 99
psocids(Liposcelis spp.) 370 213; distribution 206; the lackey (Malacosoma neustria) tobia fever 401
stored food, grains: arthropods: development 206; host nests 331 tortricid moths (Tortricidae) 343;
391, 392, 393, 395, 397, 398; 206; pest status 206 thiamethoxam 24 caterpillar 343; food 343;
Coleoptera 69, 70, 73, 74, 75, sweat bees (Halictus spp.) 262 thianicotinyl insecticides 24 filbertworm 343; uglynest
76, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 94, 101, sweat flies (Hydrotaeta spp., Musca thief ant (Solenopsis molesta) 257 caterpillar 343
103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, spp.) 172, 175 thirteen-year cicadas 217, 218 tortricidae (Lepidoptera) 343
111, 113, 114, 117, 118, 123, 125, sweat fly (Hydrotaea metorica) thread-legged bug (Emesaya tree sparrow (Passer montanus
126, 127, 128; Hymenoptera 173 brevicoxa) 213 saturatus) 376
231; Lepidoptera 329, 330, sweet potato weevil (Cylas thrips (Thysanoptera) 382; tree wasp (Dolichovespula sylvestris)
335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, formicarius elegantulus) 73 development 382; food 382; 281
341, 342; Psocoptera 367, 368, swift louse fly (Crataerina pallida) greenhouse thrips 382; cereal triangle spider (Hyptiotes cavatus)
370, 371, 372; Thysanoptera 172 thrips, thunder fly 382; flower 420
385 swimming pool: arthropods (Acari) thrips 383 triflumuron 24
stored grain dermestids (Reesa 406; Diptera 106; Hemiptera thrips wasps (Spilomena spp.) trophallaxis: Isoptera 291, 293
vespulae) 103 209, 210 268 tropical bed bug (Cimex hemipterus)
stored-nut moth (Paralipsa gularis) swimming pool mite (Hydronothrus tick paralysis 401 205; development 205;
339; development 332 crispus) 396 ticks (Ixodidae) 389, 400, 401; hybridization 205
storm sewer 9 swollen fungus beetle (Aridus development 400; domestic tropical carpenter bee (Xylocopa
straw itch mite (Pyemotes tritici) 400 nodifer) 108 dogs 401; morphology 400; latipes) 227
strawberry root weevil (Otiorhynchus sycamore lace bug (Corythucha tick-borne diseases 401; tropical fire ant (Solenopsis geminata)
ovatus) 93 ciliata) 215 American dog tick 402; 257
street lights 12 Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax Australian paralysis tick 403; tropical foul mite (Ornithonyssus
striped ambrosia beetle robustus) 411 bear tick 403; black-legged bursa) 398
(Trypodendron lineatum) 121 symbiotic flagellates: Blattaria 58 tick 403; brown dog tick 404; tropical hornet (Vespa tropica) 277
striped blister beetle (Epicauta deer tick 403; dog tick 401, tropical powderpost beetles
vittata) 113 tailless whip-scorpions (Uropygi) 404; English dog tick 403; (Minthea spp.) 112
striped earwig (Labidura riparia) 389, 433 European sheep tick 403; tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus
144 tanbark borer (Phymatodes testaceus) eyeless tampan 404; bacoti) 397
striped horse fly (Tabanus lineola) 85 groundhog tick 404; tropical warehouse moth, almond
190 tapestry moth (Trichophaga hedgehog tick 403; kennel moth (Cadra cautella) 337
striped psocid (Lepolepis bicolor) 369 tapetzella) 342 tick 401, 404; lone star tick tube-dweller wasps (Ancistrocerus
subterranean termites (Reticulitermes tarantulas (Theraphosidae) 417 401; Pacific black-legged tick spp.) 271
spp., Amitermes sp., Coptotermes tawny cockroach (Ectobius pallidus) 403; pigeon tick 402; rabbit Tule beetle (Agonum maculicolle) 79
sp.) 311; colonies 311, 312; 48 tick 402; relapsing fever tick tulip tree weevil (Odontopus calceatus)
galleries 311; morphology 311; tawny mole cricket (Scapteriscus 404; Rocky Mountain tick 93
swarming flights 312; vicinus) 354 402; South African bont 402; tumbu fly (Cordylobia anthropophaga)
taxonomy 311; arid-land telephone bug (Plecia nearctica) 150 yellow dog tick 402; see also 153
subterranean termite 313; temperature cricket (Oecanthus Ixodida in Family, genus, turfgrass: arthropods 398, 426;
eastern subterranean termite fultoni) 353 species index Coleoptera 119; Hymenoptera
312, 313; Florida dark-winged, ten-lined June beetle (Phyllophaga ticks, on dogs 401, 402, 403, 404 225, 270; Lepidoptera 338,
subterranean termite 315; decemlineata) 119 tiger moths (Arctiidae) 328; 340, 341; Orthoptera 353,
Formosan termite 307, 308; tent caterpillars (Lasiocampidae) caterpillars 328; development 354; Phasmatodea 357
western subterranean termite 331; caterpillars 331; 328; food 328; pest status 328; Turkestan cockroach (Blatta
313 development 331; food 331; banded woolybear 329; fall lateralis) 50; development 51;
suburbia 7 eastern tent caterpillar 331; the webworm 329; see also Arctidae distribution 51; ootheca 51;
sucking lice (Anoplura) 360 lackey 331 in Family, genus, species index habits 51
sucking lice, chewing lice termites (Isoptera) 291; turkey gnat (Simulium meridionale)
(Phthiraptera) 359 classification 297; colony 292, tiger moths (Arctiidae) 328 187
sucking louse (Haematopinus suis) 293, 294; dampwood 297, tile-horned prionus (Prionus tussock moths, brown-tailed
360 299; development 292, 294; imbricornis) 85, 126 moths (Lymantriidae) 333;
sugar ant (Linepithema humilie) 250 distribution 294; food 291; tissue paper beetle (Thylodrias caterpillar 333; food 333; pest
sugar ants (Paratrechina spp.) 254 drywood 297, 300; flagellates contractus) 100 status 333; Australian
sulfluramide 24 291; food value 291; higher Tisza mayfly (Palingenia longicauda) brown-tailed moth 333;
sulfuryl fluoride 26 315; lower 297; mandibulate 192 brown-tailed moth 333;
sun-spiders (Solifugae) 389, 433; 292; morphology 291; nasute tizi (Ephippiger ephippiger) 356 Japanese brown-tail moth
development 433; distribution 292; pest status 297; tobacco moth (Ephestia elutella) 339; 333; see also Lymantriidae in
433; morphology 433 pheromones 293; powderpost development 339; diapause Family, species, genus index
Index 471


two-banded fungus beetle vinegaroon (Mastigoproctus gigante) western bat bug (Cimex pilosellus) greenhouse whitefly 216;
(Alphitophagus bifasciatus) 114, 434 206 silver-leaf whitefly 216
124 vinegaroons (Uropygi) 433 western black fly (Prosimulium white-footed ant (Technomyrmex
two-spotted carpet beetle (Attagenus violet-backed starling (Sternus exigens) 187 albipes) 260; nests 260; food
pellio) 99; development 99; philippensis) 376 western boxelder bug (Boisea 260
distribution 99; food 99 violin or fiddle-back spider rubrolineata) 215 white grub parasites (Scolia spp.)
two-spotted corsairs (Rasahus (Loxosceles reclusa) 412 western bumble bee (Bombus 266
biguttatus, R. thoracius) 213 viviparous: Blattaria 37; terricola occidentalis) 230 white grub parasites (Tiphia spp.)
two-spotted ladybird beetle (Adalia Psocoptera: 366 western chicken flea (Ceratophyllus 270
bipunctata) 88 voles (Microtus) 362 niger) 376 white grub parasites (Tiphiidae)
two-spotted sap beetle (Nitidula western conifer-seed bug 270: biology 270; nests 270;
bipunctata) 114 walkingsticks, leaf insects (Leptoglossus occidentalis) 207; common grub parasites 270;
two-striped grasshopper (Melanopus (Phasmatodea) 356; food 355, squash bug (Anasa tristis) 207 white grub parasites 270
bivittatus) 350 356; development 356; western deathwatch beetle white-horned horntail (Urocerus
two-striped walkingstick distribution 356 (Hemicoleus gibbicollis) 69: albicornis) 267
(Anisomorpha buprestoides) 357 wandering spiders (Ctenidae) development 69; food 69 white-shouldered house moth
two-toothed longicorn (Ambeodontus 410 western deer fly (Chrysops discalis) (Endrosis sarcitrella) 334
tristis) 82 wardrobe beetle (Attagenus fasiatus) 190 white-spotted sawyer (Monochamus
99 western drywood termite scutellatus) 84
uglynest caterpillar moth (Archips warehouse beetle (Trogoderma (Incisitermes minor) 302, 303: white-stockinged black fly
cerasivoranus) 343 variabile) 104; distribution 104; colony 303; damage 341; (Simulium venustum) 187
ultraviolet light 12, 27 food 104 distribution 303; morphology white-tailed spider (Lampona
umbrella wasps (Polistes spp.) warehouse moth (Ephestia elutella) 302; swarming flights 303 cylindrata) 412
271 339 western equine encephalitis 17, widow spiders (Theridiidae,
undisturbed area 7 warf borer (Nacerdes melanura) 115 160 Latrodectus spp.) 418: brown
urban ecosystem 6; urban wasp beetle (Clytus arietis) 83 western firefly (Ellychina californica) widow spider 418; Florida red
ecosystem A 6; urban wasp nest dermestid (Reesa vespulae) 107 widow spider 418; northern
ecosystem B 6, 7; urban sprawl 103 western hemlock wood stainer black widow spider 419;
6, 17 wasps: chimney-maker wasps 271; (Gnathotrichus sulcatus) 122 southern black widow spider
urban environment 3: habitats 3; cicada killer wasp 269; western horntail (Sirex areolatus) 418, 419; see also Latrodectus in
arthropod distribution 3 cockroach wasps 268; digger 267 Family, genus, species index
urban environment 6 wasps 267; honey wasps 272; western or southwestern Hercules window flies (Scenopinidae) 184
urban environmental features 10, 11 mason wasps 270; paper and beetle (Dynastes granti) 120 window fly (Scenopinus fenestralis)
urban habitats 8 umbrella wasps 271, 272, 273, western scoliid (Campsomeris tolteca) 184
urban heat island 11 281; petiolate paper wasps 266 wind-scorpions (Solifugae) 389,
urban sprawl 8 272; pipe-organ wasps 269; western smoke fly (Microsania 433
urban wildlife 9 potter wasps 270; thrips wasp occidentalis) 181 wine cellar moth (Oinophila v-flava)
urbanization 5 268; tube-dweller wasps 271; western subterranean termite 341
wood wasps 283 (Reticulitermes hesperus) 313; wingless grasshoppers
vagabond cockroach (Pelmatosilpha waterbug (Blatta orientalis) 51 damage 313; distribution 313; (Rhaphidophoridae) 354
larifuga) 52 wax moth (Aphomia sociella) 337 swarming 313 winter cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus)
valley black gnat (Leptoconops torrens) webbing clothes moth (Tineola western velvet ant (Dasymutilla 353
156 bisselliella) 341, 342: sackeni) 264 winter mosquitoes (Culisdeta) 167
varied cabinet beetle (Anthrenus development 342; dispersal western yellowjacket (Paravespula winter stonefly (Strophopteryx
verbasci) 98 342; distribution 342; food pensylvanica) 282 fasciata) 366
varied carpet beetle (Anthrenus 342; origin outdoors 342;
; wetas, king crickets wolf spiders (Lycosidae) 413
verbasci) 98; development 98; pheromone 342 (Anostostomatidae) 351: wood nesting, boring arthropods
distribution 98; food 98; weevils (Curculionidae) 91: food 91; distribution 350, 351; habitats 427; Hymenoptera 225, 226,
parasites 99 origins 91; acorn weevil 95; 351; aboreal tree weta 351; 227, 228, 232, 235, 261, 262,
velvet ant (Mutilla europaea) 264 Asiatic oak weevil 92; black king crickets 351; Parktown 263; (Formicidae) 239, 241,
velvet ants (Mutillidae) 263, 264; vine weevil 93; black wood prawn 351; see also 242, 243, 244, 245, 251, 252,
development 264; hosts 264; weevil 94; broadnosed grain Anostostomatidae in Family, 261, 270; (Siricidae) 266, 267;
stridulation 264; ant-like weevil 91; eastern wood weevil genus, species index (Xiphridriidae) 283;
fosser 264; common eastern 93; Egyptian alfalfa weevil 93; wheel bug (Arilus cristatus) 212 Lepidoptera: 329, 330
velvet ant 264; cow-killer ant European wood weevil 93; whip scorpion (Mastigoproctus wood wasps (Xyphdriidae) 283
264; velvet ant 264; western granary weevil 94; imported gigante) 434 wood-boring tipulid (Ctenophora
velvet ant 264; see also long-horned weevil 91; maize whip-scorpions (Amblypygi) 389, vittata angustipennis) 191
Mutillidae in Family, genus, weevil 94; New Zealand wood 404 wood-infesting: Coleoptera 74, 75,
species index weevil 92; pine weevil, pine white-banded cicada (Henicopsaltria 102, 117, 118, 123; (Softwoods)
velvety tree ant (Liometopum borers 94; rice weevil 94; fullo) 217 67, 69, 70, 76, 78, 79, 80, 82,
microcephalum var. occidentale) strawberry root weevil 93; tulip white-banded clerid (Paratillus carus) 83, 84, 86, 94, 113, 116, 121,
251 tree weevil 93; see also 78, 88 122; (Hardwoods) 69, 70, 73,
Venezuelan equine encephalitis Curculionidae in Family, whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) 215: food 74, 75, 76, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85,
160 genus, species index 215; life cycle 215; pest status 86, 110, 111, 112, 113, 116, 121,
vinchua (Triatoma spp.) 213 West Nile encephalitis 160 214, 216; azalea whitefly 216; 122
472 Index


woodlice, sowbugs, pillbugs ant 236; smaller yellow yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) wasp 282; European
(Isopoda) 389, 427; habitats ant 235 126: development 124, 126; yellowjacket 273, 281; forest
426; morphology 426; yellow-banded clerid beetle distribution 127; food 127 yellowjacket 282; German
parasites 426; common (Trogodendron fasciculatum) 78, yellow sac spiders (Cheiracanthium yellowjacket 281; ground-
pillbug 427; common 88 spp.) 410 nesting yellowjackets 281;
woodlouse 427; dooryard yellow dog tick (Haemaphysalis yellow swarming fly (Taumatomyia Norwegian wasp 281; parasitic
sowbug 427; see also Isopoda leachii) 402 notata) 159 yellowjacket 279; prairie
in Family, genus, species yellow fever 161 yellowjackets (Vespula, Paravespula, yellowjacket 282; southern
index yellow fever mosquito (Aedes Dolichovespula) 277, 278, 279, yellowjacket 283; tree wasp
woodlouse, common (Oniscus aegypti) 161: habitats 161; 280, 281, 282, 283: 281; western yellowjacket 282;
asellus) 427 origins 153, 161; yellow fever development 278; food 278; see also Vespula and
woodwasps (Siricidae) 266 161 nests 278; pest status 279; Dolichovespula in Family, genus,
woodworm bite 67 yellow-horned horntail (Urocerus aerial yellowjackets 279; species index
flavicornis) 267 baldfaced hornet 279, 280,
yellow ants (Acanthomyops spp.) yellow hornet (Vespa simillima) 281; blackjacket 282; black zebra spider (Salticus scenicus) 417
235; biology 235; pest 276 yellowjacket 281; common zinc oxide 25
status 235; citronella 235; yellow house spiders yellowjacket 282; eastern zooflagellate protozoa: Blattaria
anting 235; larger yellow (Cheiracanthium spp.) 410 yellowjacket 282; English 57

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