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Aborigines, 209, 223, 235 backing, 144, 168
abrade, 252 blades, 81, 219
abrading, 12, 208 Bamforth, D., 7, 175, 192, 203, 235
abrasion, 171 barb, 32, 38, 207
adze, 202, 208, 252 basal grinding, 253
Africa, 220 basalt, 24, 48, see also rock types
agglomerative approaches, 68, see also base camp, 212, 214
classification Batak, 225
Ahler, S., 6, 9, 102, 114, 132, 135, 137, 226 Baumler, M., 107, 129, 136, 148, 166
alternate flaking, 252, see also flaking pattern bedding plane, 24
Amick, D., 10, 38, 98, 196 bending, 28, 118, see also flake types
Ammerman, A., 98, 119, 127, 132, 216 beveled, 253
andesite, 24, see also rock types biface, 12, 22, 70, 77, 143, 178â€“95
Andrefsky, W., 9, 10, 15, 22, 23, 28, 39, 62, 74, 90, functions, 31
102, 109, 114, 119, 124, 132, 139, 153, 185, 207, 224, hafted, 31, 77
nonhafted, 180, 181
angular shatter, 84 stages, 187, 188
antibody, 199, 252 biface thinning flake, 123, 230, 237
antigen, 199, 252 bifacial core, 16, 146, 157, 229,
antler, 12 see also core types
anvil, 252 billet, 12
application load, 13â€“14 Binford, L., 31, 185, 202, 210, 218, 226, 248
Archaic, 191 bipolar technology, 25â€“8, 234, 241, see also core, bipolar
argillite, 58, see also rock types blade, 12, 16, 71, 85, 165
arris, 106, 252 blade element, 23
arrow point, 22 Blades, B., 175, 224
artifact, 252 blank, 82, 104, 144, 151, 162, 165, 167, 171
association, 72 Bleed, P., 16, 165, 175, 207, 224
Atlatl, 74, 252 Boeda, E., 149
attribute, 63, 65 Bordes, F., 4, 8, 149, 202
attribute scale, 65â€“6 Bosnia, 155
interval, 65, 66 Bradbury, A. P., 10, 140
nominal, 65, 66, 75 Bradley, B., 8, 187
ordinal, 65, 66 bulbar scar, 253
ratio, 65, 66 bulb of force, 20, 26, 28, 118
Aubry, T., 178 bulb of percussion, see bulb of force
Austin, R., 10, 126 burin, 161, 208
Australia, 209, 223, 235 burin spall, 254
Callahan, E., 8, 22, 187 curated, 192
Carr, P., 10 curation, 254
chaÄ±ne operatoire, 38, 254
chalcedony, 24, 53, see also rock types Dalton, 34, 205
Chatters, J., 214â€“16 debitage, 16, 22, 82, 143
chert, 24, see also rock types attributes, 113, 165, 229
chip, 12, 16, see also flake condition, 87
Christenson, A. L., 22, 62 cortex, 103â€“6
Clark, J. E., 8, 16 curvature, 109â€“11
classification, 41, 61â€“2, 145, 181, 246 dorsal scars, 106â€“9
agglomerative, 68 length, 99, 132
association, 72 size, 98, 102, 132
disassociation, 72 termination, 20, 87
dissection, 68 thickness, 104
divisive approaches, 68 width, 99
modal approaches, 69 debitage analysis, 113â€“14
monothetic approaches, 67 aggregate, 114, 131, 134
morphological typology, 30, 75, 82â€“4 application load, 118
numerical, 185 attribute, 114
polythetic, 67 free standing, 127, 129
clastic rock, 51 individual, 113
cleavage plane, 254 mass analysis, 140
Close, A., 202 technological, 120â€“7
collateral flaking, 254, see also flaking triple cortex, 116, 118, 223
pattern typological, 114
collector, 210, 212 debris, 16, 128, see also debitage
Colorado, 229 decortication flake, 254
compression flake, 25, see also flake types denticulate, 255
compression rings, 125, see also ripple marks detached piece, 12, 144
conchoidal, 25â€“6 diagonal parallel flaking, 255, see also flaking pattern
flake, 16, 20 diatom, 54
fracture, 16, 119 Dibble, H. L., 38, 89, 140, 175, 220
cone, 26, see also Hertzian cone dissection, 68
Conkey, M., 202 distal end of flake, 20, 78, 170
core, 12, 14, 81, 143, 144â€“59, 181, 219 diversity, 201, 216
bifacial, 16, 146, 150, 157, 229 divisive approaches, 68
bipolar, 16, 25â€“8, 153 dorsal ridge, 86, 106, 169
centripetal, 155, 234 dorsal surface of flake, 16, 20, 78, 82, 160
definition, 81 drill, 34, 208
Levallois, 16, 145, 147, 149, 152 edge angle, 160, 255
microblade, 16 effort, 226
multidirectional, 16, 82, 145 elasticity, 255
polyhedral, 16 elastic limit, 255
Shirataki, 15, 145 endscraper, 34, 81, 205, 206
tool, 81 end shock, 255
unidirectional, 15, 82, 145, 151 England, 208
wedge-shaped, 147 eraillure, 20, see also flake types
Yubetsu, 15, 146 expedient tool, 31
cortex, 103â€“6, 104 exterior platform angle, 255
Cotterell, B., 9, 22, 25, 89, 118
Crabtree, D., 4, 8, 16, 28, 88, 118 facet, 18, see also flake type
crazing, 254, see also heat treatment feathered termination, 20, see also flake termination
cryptocrystalline, 24, 53, 239 fissures, 24
flake, 12, 16, 82 haft element, 23, 77, 168, 182
flake scar, 106â€“9 hafted biface, 22, 77, 179, 181, 203
flake termination, 20 hammerstone, 12
feathered, 20, 29, 87 handaxe, 31
hinged, 20, 29, 87 hard-hammer percussion, 26
plunging, 20, 29, 87 Hardy, B. C., 198, 199
stepped, 20, 29, 88 Hayden, B., 6, 39, 143, 203, 205, 223
flake tool, 22, 78, 85, 160â€“75 heat treatment, 256
flake types, 25â€“8, 29 crazing, 254
bending, 25â€“8, 29 pot lip fracture, 260
bipolar, 25â€“8, 113, 123 Hertzian cone, 26, 28, 124
conchoidal, 16, 20, 29 Hester, T. R., 22, 165, 206
eraillure, 20 hinge fracture, 20, 29
shatter, 28, 82, see also biface thinning flake hinged termination, 20, see also flake
flaking pattern, terminations
alternate, 252 Hiscock, P., 165, 175
collateral, 254 Hofman, J., 9
diagonal parallel, 255 Holmes, W., 3
oblique, 258 homogeneous, 14, 24
parallel, 259 hornfel, 59, see also rock types
Flenniken, J. J., 8, 38, 86, 120, 197, 224
flint, 24, see also rock types igneous rock, 48â€“50, see also rock
flintknapping, 7, 24, 25 inclusion, 256
flute, 256 index of invasiveness, 175
forager, 211 indirect percussion, 12
force, 12, 256 informal tools, 31, 162
foreshaft, 31, 77 in situ, 256
formal tools, 31, 162 interval data, 65
fracture mechanics, 11, 24, 25 Italy, 231
fracture types, 25â€“8, see also flake types
Frere, J., 3 Jacobi, R., 207
Frison, G., 4, 9, 22, 74, 179 jasper, 53, see also rock types
Fullagar, R. L. K., 196, 198, 199 Jelinek, A., 8, 38, 202
function, 195â€“8, 202â€“9, 220 Johnson, J., 16, 103, 193
gabbro, 48, see also rock types Kamminga, J., 20, 22, 25, 118
geochemical technique, 43â€“6 Keeley, L., 6, 22, 79, 171, 203
atomic absorption spectroscopy, 45 Kelly, R., 22, 31, 124, 126, 143, 157, 216, 225,
electron microprobe, 44 227, 229
inductively coupled plasma emission, 45 knife, 34, 77, 181
instrumental neutron activation, 45 Kooyman, B. P., 7, 143, 173, 197, 199
particle induced X-ray emission, 44 Kuhn, S., 16, 39, 155, 175, 178, 231, 233
X-ray fluorescence, 44
glass, 24 lanceolate, 77
Goodyear, A., 4, 22, 34, 123, 153, 205, 224 lateral margins, 20, 165
Gould, R., 39, 203, 209, 235 Late Stone Age, 220
Grace, R., 7, 203 lava, 46
granite, 42, see also rock types Levallois, 234, see also core type
grinding, 75, 169 lip, 18, 118
ground stone tools, 256 lithic, 1â€“3, 11, 42
gun flint, 8 lithic technological organization, 175
lithic technology, 38, 226
hackle marks, 24, 256, see also fissures load, 13â€“14
haft, 171 Luedtke, B., 41, 54
macrocrystalline quartz, 53 outrepasse, 20, see also flake termination
mafic rock, 47, see also rock overshot, 20, 87, see also flake termination
Magne, M., 86, 89, 106, 147 Paleoindian, 34, 178, 191
maintenance tools, 222, 239 parallel flaking, 259, see also flaking pattern
mass, 257 Parry, W. J., 124, 126, 158, 174, 224, 227, 229
mass analysis, 140, 257, see also debitage patina, 259
analysis patination, 42
maximum linear dimension (MLD), 145 Patterson, L., 9, 22, 102, 135
mean, 257 pecking, 259
median, 257 percussion flake, 12
Mellars, P., 22, 148, 164 percussion flaking, 12, 75
Mesolithic, 89, 218 percussor, 259
metamorphic, 56â€“9 Perkiomen, 36
metamorphosed, 57, see also rock perverse fracture, 259
metaquartzite, 56, see also quartzite petrography, 259
microcrystalline quartz, 49, 50, 53 phenocryst, 49
microdebitage, 136 phytoliths, 198
microlith, 32, 81, 85, 165, 207 plano-convex, 259
microblade, 16, 145, 146, 165, 207 platform, 15, see also striking platform
microburin, 258 platform thickness, 94
microchipping, 196 plunging termination, 20, see also flake
microscopy, 6, 173, 195 termination
high powered, 7 point of applied force, 12, 18, 28, 83, see also striking
low powered, 7 platform
microwear, 5â€“7 polarized light, 259
Middle Stone Age, 22, 23, 29 polish, 76, 169, 171, 183, 196
minimal analytical nodule analysis, 141 polyhedral core, 16
mobility, 155, 175, 210, 224 polythetic approaches, 67, see also classification
modal approaches, 69, see also classification porphyry, 259
mode, 258 pot lid fracture, 260, see also heat treatment
monothetic approaches, 67, see also classification preform, 77
Montet-White, A., 155, 168, 220 prehension, 167â€“71